Social media Impact on Cyber world
The Internet is changing the nature of privacy and aftereffects of information disclosure. Social networking sites such as Facebook are resulting in negative consequences of such disclosed information where students are generally not concerned about the authenticity of even simple information they feed.Point of concern is that participants without knowing the authenticity of such shared information like email address, birthdays and PAN card details etc., they share it on online portals with the utmost level of trust.
Thus, the primary objective of this research paper is to examine the factors affecting adolescents and youth’s level of privacy concerns and how these concerns affect their behavioral responses. The topic is of prime importance because findings may help the ultimate consumers to develop in themselves the sense of not only to decide whether to disclose any tiny detail on the internet or not but also help them protect their privacy rights online.
The Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act of 1998 (COPPA) requested that websites targeting children must seek verifiable parental consent for information collection. Moreover , human technology is so advanced that , we upon signing up, do not want to waste a single second to look upon the “SO CALLED” Terms And Conditions and simply click on “ I AGREE” just to save few more seconds of our busy routine and spend those few seconds on social networking sites.
A number of studies have found that Internet users only engage in privacy protection behavior, e.g., by restricting online privacy settings or deleting cookies. Users do tend to adapt to privacy threats from their immediate social environment, such as stalking and cyberbullying but react less consistently to it. As a result, commercial service providers criticized for their privacy policies, such as Google, Facebook or Apple, still dominate consumer markets.
Online self-disclosure despite privacy concerns focuses on user trust is a psychological state comprising the intention to accept vulnerability based upon positive expectations of the intentions or behaviors of another. Another reason why individuals disclose personal information despite pronounced privacy concerns is to be found in their lack of risk-awareness and missing knowledge related to the potential harm associated with online self-disclosure. According to this view, many users simply lack understanding and awareness of online privacy risks.
The sociological literature on online skills suggests that privacy behavior and digital literacy or skills are related. For example, in 2010, a longitudinal survey was conducted with more than 1000 first-year students (mostly 18 or 19 years old) at the University of Illinois Chicago. They found that within one year, these students became more aware of the Facebook privacy settings and modified them more often, indicating learning effects. The authors showed that highly skilled Facebook users modified their privacy settings more frequently than less skilled users.
Communication Privacy management
There are several basic principles of COMMUNICATION PRIVACY MANAGEMENT, these include that users believe that they own their private information and hold the right to control how this information is disseminated. The adoption of GPS technologies in cars and smartphones means that the providers of this technology now have a simple tracking device on all of us, all of the time. And every time the little dialog box pops-up on your screen saying ‘this app would like to use your location, we reconfirm our acceptance of this diminishing of our privacy. Other apps require access to our social networking accounts in order to sign up for them, and we receive the message like ‘this app would like to access your basic profile information and lists of friends.
Increasingly, we are encouraged by popular media to believe that we are under both threat and surveillance by the range of forces. Virus makers are producing malware and distributing it using a wide variety of mechanisms. Cyber criminals use our credit card details and they gain access to our computers and steal our files. On the other hand, state intelligence services are reading our texts and checking what we are looking on the internet, Our employees are collecting data on your browsing habits. Online shopping sites are tracking our purchases and profiling our lifestyles. One should not be amazed to know that we don’t even know with whom on earth our younger generations are talking to on internet today.
We may perceive that we are sharing a particular information with only a small group of people but we might also be sharing it with a group of friends of friends of friends via online profile or website. We regularly give up certain aspects of our privacy to benefit from certain services or technological advances. Even if we share a particular information with a small group of people, chances are that it might get forwarded to unknown audiences.
Privacy can be understood as “ the interest an individual has in sustaining a personal space, free from interference by other people and organizations. Privacy can be the privacy of a person, privacy of personal behavior, the privacy of personal communications and privacy of personal data. According to Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, privacy is no longer a social norm. H says that people have really got comfortable not only sharing more information but more openly and with more people.
Health motivated apps are used by us to manage our diet or lose our weight. You might be thinking who would be interested in this data – health insurance companies, employers, retailers.
In a survey of 395 school students, it was found out that girls provide inaccurate information as their privacy concern increases whereas boys refrained from registering to websites as their concern increases. In a survey data from 144 middle students, it was revealed that privacy concerns increase at disclosure of information whereas it decreases when benefits are offered for the same.Branded marketplaces , especially for young adolescents have a strong presence.
Every time you search online for the best restaurant deal, share good news or bad with your Facebook friends, or tweet to your followers, your “audience” is bigger than you know.
That’s because your every online move leaves cyber footprints that are rapidly becoming fodder for research without you ever realizing it. Using social media for academic research is accelerating and raising ethical concerns along the way, as vast amounts of information collected by private companies — including Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Twitter — are giving new insight into all aspects of everyday life.
Just consider that mining online communication has already helped Microsoft identify women at risk of postpartum depression. It’s also allowed Facebook to study how parents and kids interact. The possibilities appear limited only by the imagination of the researchers, which is why such issues were in the spotlight recently at a meeting of social and personality psychologists. They gathered to concentrate on what’s ahead amid concerns that some users of these sites may not like that their behavior is under the microscope. Even as this mining of huge digital data sets of collective behavior is on the rise, the word “caution” is coming from all sides.
Defined as the harm that is inflicted through technology, and is done willfully and repeatedly. Melania Trump is right that the issue is widespread. A nationwide cyberbullying survey of 5,600 middle and high school students, published out of Florida Atlantic University earlier this year, found that 34 percent of students said they had experienced cyberbullying in their lifetime.Technically, the term cyberbullying usually refers to teens—young adults sitting behind computer screens, nastily messaging peers things like, “You’re fat!”—so Trump, at 71, is about 55 years too old to be considered a cyberbully, says Parry Aftab, a lawyer who specializes in cyberbullying and digital privacy.In the case of adults, cyberbullying behavior is less about coping with personal problems, however, and more about gaining status or reputation among certain circles.
FACEBOOK POSTS ARE CONTAGIOUS – RESEARCH SUGGESTS
“Facebook is transformed from a public space to a behavioral laboratory,” says the study, which cites a Harvard-based research project of 1,700 college-based Facebook users in which it became possible to “deanonymize parts of the data set,” or cross-reference anonymous data to make student identification possible.
“Sometimes it’s easier than we think to identify this data,” she says. “I’m not saying no one should ever do this kind of research, but I’m saying we should be more cautious when we use this data.”
Some of Facebook’s research on user behavior found that 71% of people drafted at least one post that they never posted. Another analyzed 400,000 posts and found that children’s communication with parents decreases in frequency from age 13 but then rises when they move out.
A member of Facebook’s Safety Advisory Board — suggests that users shouldn’t worry because the very large companies such as Twitter, Google, Microsoft, and Facebook have privacy policies for users.
“The sites will never provide personally identifiable information unless they have the consent of the users. And there is legal recourse if they’re using it in any other way,” she Said Regarding the relationship between privacy attitudes and privacy management in general, an area of inquiry that has received a significant amount of attention concerns differences between adults and adolescents.
Limiting the undesired impact of cyber weapon
Cyber weapons not only can be targeted, they have been used in just such a manner in recent years. We examine the technical requirements and policy implications of targeted cyber attacks, discussing which variables enable targeting and what level of situation-specific information is required for such attacks. We also consider technical and policy constraints on cyber weapons that would enable them to be targetable. The attacker must have sufficiently detailed knowledge of the target’s environment to avoid accidental damage to other machines, including ones that depend indirectly on the targeted ones. To avoid accidental damage to other machines, including machines that depend indirectly on those targeted, the attacker must have highly detailed knowledge of the target’s environment.
The cyber weapon is defined to be a software-based IT artifact or tool that can cause destructive, damaging or degrading effects on the system or network against which it is directed.1 A cyber weapon has two components: a penetration component and a payload component. The penetration component is the mechanism through which the weapon gains access to the system to be attacked. The payload component is the mechanism that actually accomplishes what the weapons is supposed to do – destroy data, interrupt communications, exfiltrate information, causing computer-controlled centrifuges to speed up, and so on.
Successful targeted cyber attack
The first publicly visible cyber attack on a country as a country, i.e. as opposed to on specific targets within a country, was a massive denial of service attack on Estonia.6,7 The attack – most observers either hold the Russian government responsible or believe that the Russian government either supported or tolerated it – did no permanent damage; however, Internet links and servers in Estonia were flooded by malicious traffic, leaving them unusable.
The most serious kind of attack is one that causes physical damage to computers or equipment attached to them. (That, of course, was the effect of Stuxnet. Computers are cheap and plentiful; while having to restore files is annoying, it is unlikely to be fatal if the company has adequate backups. Consider Sony and the South Korean banks that were attacked , both apparently by North Korea: despite the destruction of files, all are still in business, and none spent more than an inconsequential amount of time recovering.
Physical damage, however, requires repair or replacement of physical items. This is likely to be far more expensive and far more time-consuming than restoring.
Cyber Psychological Computation on Social Community of Ubiquitous Learning
Under the modern network environment, ubiquitous learning has been a popular way for people to study knowledge, exchange ideas, and share skills in the cyber space. Existing research findings indicate that the learners’ initiative and community cohesion play vital roles in the social communities of ubiquitous learning, and therefore how to stimulate the learners’ interest and participation willingness so as to improve their enjoyable experiences in the learning process should be the primary consideration on this issue.
This paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners’ psychological reactions based on their behavioral features inThis paper aims to explore an effective method to monitor the learners’ psychological reactions based on their behavioral features in cyber space and therefore provide useful references for adjusting the strategies in the learning process. In doing so, this paper firstly analyzes the psychological assessment of the learners’ situations as well as their typical behavioral patterns and then discusses the relationship between the learners’ psychological reactions and their observable features in cyber space. Finally, this paper puts forward a Cyber Psychological computation method to estimate the learners’ psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners’ habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.
Finally, this paper puts forward a Cyber Psychological computation method to estimate the learners’ psychological states online. Considering the diversity of learners’ habitual behaviors in the reactions to their psychological changes, a BP-GA neural network is proposed for the computation based on their personalized behavioral patterns.
PRIVACY AND TECHNOLOGY
“The fact that technology now allows an individual to carry such information in his hand does not make the information any less worthy of the protection for which the Founders fought.”
- U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts in Riley v. California (2014)
Technological innovation has outpaced our privacy protections. As a result, our digital footprint can be tracked by the government and corporations in ways that were once unthinkable.
This digital footprint is constantly growing, containing more and more data about the most intimate aspects of our lives. This includes our communications, whereabouts, online searches, purchases, and even our bodies. When the government has easy access to this information, we lose more than just privacy and control over our information. Free speech, security, and equality suffer as well.
The ACLU Speech, Privacy, and Technology Project fights in the courts, lobbies on Capitol Hill, and works with technology companies to ensure that civil liberties are protected as technology advances. We are working to secure a warrant requirement for law enforcement access to electronic information, to chip away at the government’s excessive secrecy surrounding its surveillance practices, to promote the proliferation of privacy-protective technologies, and more.
Americans should not have to choose between using new technologies and protecting their civil liberties. We work to ensure a future in which the Fourth Amendment ban on unreasonable searches extends to digital property and your data is your own.
With more and more of our lives moving online, intrusions by governments and corporations have devastating implications for our right to privacy. But more than just privacy is threatened when everything we say, everywhere we go, and everyone we associate with is fair game.
Law enforcement is taking advantage of outdated privacy laws to track Americans like never before. New technologies can record your every movement, revealing detailed information about how you choose to live your life. Without the right protections in place, the government can gain access to this information—and your private life—with disturbing ease.
PRIVACY AT BORDERS AND CHECKPOINTS
The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects all people within the United States from unreasonable stops and searches. While federal authorities enjoy broader powers at ports of entry, this power is not unlimited. However, the government has repeatedly developed programs—increasingly involving new technologies—that subject traveler to unreasonable stops and searches at the border, violating the basic tenets of our Constitution.
MEDICAL AND GENETIC PRIVACY
Medical and genetic information can reveal some of the most personal and private data about us, and maintain control over that information is crucial. As medical records are increasingly digitized and genetic sequencing becomes faster and cheaper, threats to our privacy and autonomy intensify.
All too often, the deployment of new technologies happens faster than our social, political, educational, or legal systems can react, producing a “land rush” in which companies and government agencies deploy new privacy-invasive technologies before subjects are aware that they exist—and certainly before we have consented to their use through our democratic political system.